10 August 2011

Treaties of the Cherokee

The Cherokee have participated in over forty treaties in the past three hundred years.

Treaty between two Cherokee towns with English Traders of Carolina, 1684: first treaty of trade between the Cherokee and European immigrants.

Treaty with South Carolina, 1721: Ceded land between the Santee, Saluda, and Edisto Rivers to the Province of South Carolina.

Treaty of Nikwasi, 1730: Trade agreement with the Province of North Carolina thru Alexander Cumming.

Treaty of Whitehall, 1730: “Articles of Trade and Friendshipbetween the Cherokee and the English colonies. Signed between seven Cherokee chiefs and George I of England.

Treaty with South Carolina, 24 November 1755: Ceded land between the Wateree and Santee Rivers to the Province of South Carolina.

Treaty with North Carolina, 1756:  Treaty of alliance by the Province of North Carolina with the Cherokee and the Catawba during the French and Indian War.

Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston, 20 July 1761: Ended the Anglo-Cherokee War with the Colony of Virginia.

Treaty of Charlestown, 18 December 1761: Ended the Anglo-Cherokee War with the Province of South Carolina.

Treaty of Johnson Hall, 12 March 1768: Guaranteed peace between the Cherokee on one side and the Six Nations Iroquois, the Seven Confederate Nations, and the Caughnawaga on the other.

Treaty of Hard Labour, 17 October 1768: Ceded land in southwestern Virginia to the British Indian Superintendent, John Stuart.

Treaty of Lochaber, 18 October 1770: Ceded land in the later states of Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky to the Colony of Virginia.

Treaty with Virginia, early 1772: Ceded land in Virginia and eastern Kentucky to the Colony of Virginia.

Treaty of Augusta, 1 June 1773: Ceded Cherokee claim to 8100 km2 to the Colony of Georgia.

Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, 14 March 1775: Ceded claims to the hunting grounds between the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers to the Transylvania Land Company.

Treaty of DeWitts’ Corner, 20 May 1777:  The Lower Cherokee ceded their lands to the States of South Carolina and Georgia and agreed to migrate westward into what’s now North Georgia.

Treaty of Fort Henry, 20 July 1777: The Overhill, Middle, Out, and Valley Cherokee, this confirmed the cession of the lands to the Watauga Association with the States of Virginia and North Carolina and ceded the Out Towns to North Carolina.

Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston, 26 July 1781 : Peace treaty between the Overhill, Valley, and Middle Towns, and the Overmountain settlers that confirmed former cessions but gave up no additional land.

Treaty of Long Swamp Creek, 30 May 1783: Confirmed the northern boundary of the State of Georgia with the Cherokee, between the latter and that state, with the Cherokee ceding large amounts of land between the Savannah and Chattachoochee Rivers to the State of Georgia in the Treaty of Long Swamp Creek.

Treaty of French Lick, 6 November 1783: A peace treaty between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Chickasaw; however, the Lower Cherokee present at the conference also made an agreement of cease-fire.

Treaty of Pensacola, 30 May 1784: For alliance and commerce between New Spain and the Cherokee and Creek.

Treaty of Dumplin Creek, 10 June 1785: Ceded remaining land within the claimed boundaries of Sevier County to the State of Franklin.

Treaty of Hopewell, 28 November 1785: Changed the boundaries between the U.S. and Cherokee lands.

Treaty of Coyatee, 20 July 1786: Made with the State of Franklin at gunpoint, this treaty ceded the remaining land north of the Little Tennessee River.

Treaty of Holston, 2 July 1791: Established boundaries between the United States and the Cherokee Nation. Guaranteed by the United States that the lands of the Cherokee Nation have not been ceded to the United States.

Treaty of Philadelphia, 17 February 1792: Supplemented the previous Holston treaty regarding annuities, etc.

Treaty of Walnut Hills, 10 April 1792: Between the Spanish governor in New Orleans and the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, and Seminole in which the former promised the latter military protection.

Treaty of Pensacola, 26 September 1792: Between the Lower Cherokee under John Watts and Arturo O'Neill, governor of Spanish West Florida, for arms and supplies with which to wage war against the United States.

Treaty of Philadelphia, 26 June 1794: Reaffirmed the provisions of the 1785 Treaty of Hopewell and the 1791 Treaty of Holston, particularly those regarding land cession.

Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse, 8 November 1794: Peace treaty with of the United States with the Lower Cherokee ending the Chickamauga Wars (1776-1794).

Treaty of Tellico, 2 October 1798: The boundaries promised in the previous treaty had not been marked and white settlers had come in. Because of this, the Cherokee were told they would need to cede new lands as an "acknowledgment" of the protection of the United States. The U.S. would guarantee the Cherokee could keep the remainder of their land "forever".

Treaty of Tellico, 24 October 1804: Ceded land.

Treaty of Tellico, 25 October 1805: Ceded land, including that for the Federal Road through the Cherokee Nation.

Treaty of Tellico, 27 October 1805: Ceded land for the state assembly of Tennessee, whose capital was then in East Tennessee, to meet upon.

Treaty of Washington City, 7 January 1806: Ceded land.

Treaty of Fort Jackson, 9 August 1814: Ended the Creek War, demanded land from both the Creek and the Cherokee.

Treaty of Washington City, 22 March 1816: Ceded last remaining lands within the territory limits claimed by South Carolina to the state.

Treaty of Chickasaw Council House, 14 September 1816: Ceded land.

Treaty of the Cherokee Agency, 8 July 1817: Acknowledged the division between the Upper Towns, which opposed emigration, and the Lower Towns, which favored emigration, and provided benefits for those who chose to emigrate west and 640 acre (2.6 km2) reserves for those who did not, with the possibility of citizenship of the state they are in.

Treaty of Washington City, 27 February 1819: Reaffirmed the Treaty of the Cherokee Agency of 1817, with a few added provisions specifying land reserves for certain Cherokee.

Treaty of San Antonio de Bexar, 8 November 1822: Granted land in the province of Spanish Tejas in the Viceroyalty of New Spain upon which the Cherokee band of The Bowl could live. Though signed by the Spanish governor of Tejas, the treaty was never ratified by the Spanish Empire nor by the succeeding Mexican Empire nor by the Republic of Mexico.

Treaty of Washington City, 6 May 1828: Cherokee Nation West ceded its lands in Arkansas Territory for lands in what becomes Indian Territory.

Treaty of New Echota, 29 December 1835: Surrendered to the United States the lands of the Cherokee Nation East in return for $5,000,000 dollars to be disbursed on a per capita basis, an additional $500,000 dollars is for educational funds, title in perpetuity to an equal amount of land in Indian Territory to that given up, and full compensation for all property left in the East. The treaty was rejected by the Cherokee National Council but approved by the U.S. Senate.

Treaty of Bowles Village, 23 February 1836: Granted nearly 4000 km2 of land in the east of the Republic of Texas to the Texas Cherokees and Twelve Associated Tribes.

Violation of this treaty led to the Cherokee War of 1839 in which most Cherokees were driven north into the Choctaw Nation or who fled south into Mexico. Following this episode, remaining Texas Cherokees under Chicken Trotter joined Mexican forces in a guerrilla war that culminated with the invasion of San Antonio by Mexican General Adrian Woll. Cherokee and allied Indians saw action at the Battle of Salado Creek and against the Dawson regiment. Following this conflict, it was apparent that Mexico was not going to be able to provide the remaining Texas Cherokees with any stability or lands in Texas. This led to a push for peace by newly re-installed Texas President Sam Houston to push for a peace treaty in 1843.

Treaty of Bird’s Fort, 29 September 1843: Ended hostilities between several Texas tribes, including the Cherokees, and the Republic of Texas. The Treaty which was ratified by the Congress of the Republic of Texas, recognized the tribal status of the Texas Indians as distinct, including the Cherokees that would later become known as the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands. President of Texas Sam Houston, adopted son of former Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation West John Jolly, signed for the republic. This treaty, honored by the State of Texas following annexation, has never been abrogated by the Congress of the United States and in theory is still valid.

Treaty with the Republic of Texas, 1844: Additional treaty in which Chicken Trotter and Wagon Bowles were involved, but never ratified.

Treaty of Washington City, 6 August 1846: Ended the covert war between the various factions of the Cherokee Nation that had been ongoing since 1839 and attempted to unite the Old Settlers, the Treaty Party, and the Latecomers (or National Party).

Treaty of Fort Smith, Arkansas, 13 September 1865: Recognized the claims of the John Ross party as the legitimate Cherokee Nation vis-a-vis those of the Stand Watie party, as well as a cease-fire between the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Creek, Osage, Quapaw, Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Wichita, and Wyandot, with the United States.

Treaty of the Cherokee Nation, 19 July 1866: Annulled a "pretended treaty" with Confederate Cherokees; granted amnesty to Cherokees; established a US district court in Indian Territory; prevented the US from trading in the Cherokee Nation unless approved by the Cherokee council or taxing residents of the Cherokee Nation; established that all Cherokee Freedmen and free African-Americans living in the Cherokee Nation "shall have all the rights of native Cherokees"; established right of way for rivers, railroads, and other transportation their Cherokee lands; allowed for the US to settle other Indian people in the Cherokee Nation; prevented members of the US military from selling alcohol to Cherokees for non-medicinal purposes; ceded Cherokee lands in Kansas; and established boundaries and settlements for various individuals.

Treaty of Washington City, 29 April 1868: Supplemented the treaty of 1866 and also ceded the Cherokee Outlet in Indian Territory.

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