08 August 2011

Colonialization of the Americas, and the Growth of the American Empire

Early 6th century – Voyage of Brendan of Clonfert to the “Fortunate Isles”.  Possible plantation of an Irish colony in the Chesapeake Bay region that the later Vikings called “Hvitramamaland” (“White Man’s Land”) or “Irland Ed Milka” (“Greater Ireland”).

986 – Norse and Icelanders found two colonies on the island of Greenland.

1000 – Norse Vikings under Leif Erikson establish a settlement on the island of Newfoundland they call Vinland.  It is abandoned ten years later, but maintained as a site for temporary stay.

1400 – Probably the last year ships from Greenland visit Vinland.

1450 – The colony on Greenland disappears by this date.

1492 – Cristoforo Colombo of the Republic of Genoa, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, “discovers” the Americas. He leaves 39 men on the island of Hispaniola after the Santa Maria runs aground there, who found the settlement of La Navidad.

1496 – Spain establishes the city of Nueva Isabella, now Santo Domingo, on the island of Hispaniola.

1497 – Zuan Chabotto of the Republic of Venice, sailing for the Kingdom of England, “discovers” Newfoundland.

1498 – Columbus discovers the island of Trinidad, which remains in Spain’s possession until 1797 though populated mostly by French colonists.

1502 – Amerigo Vespucci of the Republic of Florence, sailing for the Kingdom of Portugal, proves that the new lands are separate from Afro-Eurasia.

1508 – The Spanish found Caparra on the island they name San Juan Bautista and later rename Puerto Rico.

1519-1521 – The Spanish under Cortes conquer the Empire of the Mexica.

1521 – Portugal establishes a fishing colony on Cape Breton Island.

1526 – Spain establishes the first European colony in the later United States of San Miguel de Gualdape at or near Sapelo Island in Georgia, though this is very short-lived, lasting only three months, largely because it was also the scene of the first African slave revolt.  They named the region Carolina after Charles I of Spain/Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire.

1527-1528 – Narvaez’ ill-fated expedition into La Florida.

1530 – The Portugese begin colonization of Brasil.

1531-1537 – The Spanish under Pizarro conquer the Inca Empire.

1531 – The Spanish establish El Nuevo Reyno de Galicia.

1536 – Spain establishes the Viceroyalty of Nuevo España.

1538 – French Huguenots establish a short-lived colony on Saint Christophe.

1539-1542 – DeSoto’s expedition into the interior of La Florida.

1540 – The Spanish found the Captaincy-General of Guatemala, which includes the current Guatemala, El Salvador, Belize, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Chiapas, as a part of Nueva España.

1540-1546 – After two failed attempts (1527-1528 & 1531-1535), Montejo finally succeeds in conquering Yucatan.

1542 – Spain creates the Viceroyalty of Nuevo Castillo, which soon becomes the Viceroyalty of Peru.

1549 – The first Portugese Governor-General arrives in Brasil.

1555 – French Huguenots establish the colony of France Antartique on the coast of Brasil from Rio de Janero to Cabo Frio.

1559 – De Luna establishes Santa Cruz on the Alabama River at the former site of the town of Nanipanca after landing at the later Pensacola, and the colony lasts for nearly a year, during which the Spanish make an expedition into Southeast Tennessee to support the Coosa against the Napochi.

1562 – France establishes Charlesfort at the foot of Parris Island, South Carolina, and Fort Carolina, near Jacksonville, Florida, naming their colony Carolina after their king, Charles IX; most of the settlers are Huguenots.

Nueva España establishes Nueva Vizcaya.

1564 – The Captaincy-General of New Granada is established at Bogota, taking in roughly the territory of modern Colombia.

1565 – Spain destroys the recent French settlements and establishes the colony of La Florida, with its capital at Santa Elena on Parris Island adjacent to the Presidio de San Salvador (later San Felipe), keeping the name Carolina for the region. They also establish the later capital San Agustin somewhat south of the former Fort Carolina, which the Spanish rename Ft. San Mateo.

With the founding of a permanent settlement on the island of Cebu under Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the colony of the Spanish East Indies is established, and includes the Philippine Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Marianas Islands, Palau, Sabah, and parts of Formosa and Moluccas.

Both La Florida and the Spanish East Indies are part of the Viceroyalty of Nueva España.

1567 – During an expedition into the interior of La Florida, Juan Pardo establishes the following forts: Santo Tomas at Cotifachiqui (South Carolina), San Juan (and the settlement of Cuenca) at Joara (North Carolina), Santiago at Guatari (North Carolina), and San Pablo at Cauchi (Southeast Tennessee).

Hernando Moyano, sergeant in charge while Pardo is in San Agustin, raids into the interior of Carolina, burning the Chiska town of Maniateque (Saltville, VA) and the town of Guapere (upper Watauga river), before establishing Fort San Pedro at the town of Chiaha.

Eighteen months later, the natives burn all the structures and kill all the members of the garrisons, save for one soldier.

The Portugese wipe out France Antartique.

1568 – A joint French-Indian force burns Fort San Mateo after massacring the population.

1570 – Spain establishes the mission Santa Maria in Ajacan (their name for what later became Virginia) on the coast of Virginia, but it is destroyed a year later.

1571 – The Spanish Inquisition comes to Nueva España as the Mexican Inquisition.

1572 – Vilcabamba, the last holdout of the Inca, falls to the Spanish conquistadors.

1576 – Santa Elena and Fort San Felipe are abandoned by the Spanish due to wars with the Orista and the Escamacu, who burn them to the ground.

1577 – The Spanish rebuild Santa Elena, replacing Fort San Felipe with Fort San Marcos.

1582 – The Spanish found the colony of Nueva Reyno de Leon.

1583 – Humphrey Gilbert establishes the colony of Newfoundland.

1585 – Walter Raleigh establishes a colony on Roanoke Island (off the coast of the later North Carolina) under Ralph Lane, as the first English settlement of Virginia, which establishes relations with the nearby Secotan and Croatoan tribes. 

1587 – The Spanish abandon Santa Elena and Fort San Marcos for good, but establish their first mission in what later becomes Georgia, San Pedro de Mocama, at the Timucuan-speaking town of the same name.
       
A group of 150 arrives at the colony on Roanoke Island, led by John White as governor of the Colony of Virginia.

1590 – A relief expedition finds Roanoke deserted, with the word CROATOAN carved on a post of the fort. Most historians speculate, as did Governor White at the time, that the colonists had moved to Hatteras Island to live with the Croatoan.

1598 – Nueva España establishes the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.

1602 – The Spanish establish the mission Santa Catalina de Guale on St. Catherine’s Island off the northern coast of Georgia which becomes the headquarters for their mission efforts in the region.

1604 – France establishes the first settlement in what later becomes Acadie. Most of the colony’s settlers come from Brittany and Normandy.

1607 – The London Company reestablishes the Colony of Virginia at Jamestown.

The Plymouth Company establishes Popham Colony in what is now Maine, but the effort collapses within a year.

1608 – France establishes the colony of Canada at Quebec.  It ultimately develops into three districts governed from the settlements of Quebec, Montreal, and Trois-Rivieres.  The vast region west of Montreal centered on the Great Lakes and known as the Upper Country is dependent on the bigger colony.

1610 – Nueva España establishes Sante Fe as the capital of Nuevo Mexico.

1612 – The British establish a colony on Bermuda, originally as part of Virginia Colony; it remains a colony of the United Kingdom to this day.
       
The French establish the short-lived colony of France Equinoxiale, with its capital of Saint Louis, now Sao Luis, Brasil.

1616 – The Dutch found the colony of Essequibo on the northeastern coast of South America.

1620 – James VI & I designates the Atlantic coast from Acadie to Chesapeake Bay as New England.

English Separatists from the Netherlands establish New Plymouth on land formerly occupied by the Wampanoag subtribe of the Patuxet, who had been wiped out by smallpox.

1621 – Scots, primarily Highlanders, began immigrating into Acadie.

1622 – The Plymouth Company establishes the Province of Maine.

1623 – The English establish a colony on the island they call Saint Kitts, the same as Saint Christophe.

The English establish a short-lived colony at Cape Ann on Massachusetts Bay.

1624 – The United Provinces of the Netherlands establishes Nieuw-Nederland.
       
James I of England revokes the London Company’s charter and it becomes a royal colony.

1625 – France reestablishes a colony on Saint Christophe.

1627 – France joins Acadie and Canada into the Viceroyalty of Nouvelle France.

The Dutch establish the colony of Berbice on the northeastern shore of South America.

1629 – The Plymouth Company divides off the western part of Maine as the Province of New Hampshire.

Scotland establishes the colony of Nova Scotia, at the time taking in all the area between Newfoundland and New England, but the land returns to France over two years.

Salem, founded in 1626, secedes from New Plymouth Colony and joins Massachusetts Bay Colony the next year.

France begins colonizing Cape Breton Island.

1630 – A group of English Puritans establishes Massachusetts Bay Colony.

The age of buccaneering begins when the Spanish drive a group of French from Hispanolia, after which they establish themselves on Tortuga.

1632 – Lord Baltimore establishes the Palatinate of Maryland.

1635 – France colonizes Guadeloupe and Martinique.

John Winthrop, son of the Massachusetts governor, establishes the Saybrook Colony in what is now Connecticut.

1637 – New Haven is established by a group of Puritans who believe the ones in Massachusetts Bay are too lax.

1638 – Sweden establishes Nya Sverige.

Portsmouth (by Anne Hutchinson, on Aquideneck Island), New Haven, and Exeter are established in the New England area.

1639 – Connecticut is formed by settlers in Windsor (originally Separatists from New Plymouth), Wethersfield, and Hartford.

Newport is founded on Aquideneck Island by Coddington and Clarke.

Charles I grants a patent to Lion Gardiner and his descendants for an independent proprietary colony adjacent to the later East Hampton known as Gardiner's Island.

1641 – New Hampshire is absorbed by Massachusetts Bay.

1642 - The Colony of Maryland declares war on the Susquehannock.

1643 – The United Colonies of New England, comprised of Massachusetts Bay, New Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut, is formed.

Warwick is founded by Samuel Gorton and others as Shawomet.

France colonizes Saint Lucie.

1644 – Saybrook is sold to Connecticut.

1646 – The Susquehannock defeat the Colony of Maryland with help from Nya Sverige.

1647 – Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is formed from Warwick, Newport, Portsmouth, and Providence.

1648 – France colonizes Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy.

1649 – France colonizes the island of Grenada.

1650-1730 – The Golden Age of Piracy.

1650 – France colonizes Saint Croix.

1651 – The British establish the colony of Willoughbyland on the northeastern coast of South America.

1653 – The Province of Virginia authorizes the Albemarle Settlements south of the Roanoke River, whose settlers are nearly all Virginians relocating south.

1654 – The Duchy of Courland colonizes Tobago. After Courland abandons the colony in 1690, the island changes hands 35 times.

1655 – The Dutch conquer Nya Sverige and add it to Nieuw-Nederland.

1656 – The French establish the colony of Saint-Domingue in the western third of Hispaniola, largely inhabited by people expelled from Acadie, in what was formerly the territory of mostly French buccaneers.

1663 – Nouvelle France becomes a province of France.

The Province of Carolina is founded by Lords Proprietor from England, named for Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland by his son and successor Charles II, with most of the original settlers coming from Virginia, New England, and Bermuda.  The Proprietors guarantee freedom of religion to “Jews, dissenters, and heathens” as well as Anglicans.

1664 – The British capture Nieuw Amsterdam, and Nieuw-Nederland, comprising territory of the later colonies of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, falls to them. New York and New Jersey are established in the central part of the former Dutch colony.

New Haven becomes part of Connecticut.

The French establish the colony of (French) Guiana, which even today remains the territory of France.

1665 – The Lords Proprietor get a new charter including the Albemarle Settlements, which later become the foundation for the later North Carolina.

1667 – The Dutch capture Willoughbyland, renaming it Suriname, later surrendering claim to New Amsterdam in return for being allowed to retain this colony.

1673 – The Dutch retake New York from the British and rename it Nieuw Orange, but return it a year later.

1674 – New Jersey is divided into East Jersey for Scots Presbyterians (primarily from Aberdeen and Montrose) and West Jersey as a royal colony.

The Franco-Dutch War takes place in the New World, ending with the Dutch occupation of Acadie as New Holland, an attempt ending two years later with the French again in full control of the area.

1680 – New Hampshire regains its individual identity.

1681 – William Penn establishes the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

1682 – The French establish Ft. Prudhome at Randolph, Alabama, and Fort Assumption on the Chickasaw Bluffs on the Mississippi River.

1684 – Stuarts Town and two counties carved out of the future English colony of Carolina are settled by colonists from Scotland. The settlement is wiped out two years later by the Spanish and their Indian allies, though the survivors of an epidemic that brought their number down to 150 escaped ahead of time after being warned by their Yamasee allies.

1685 – The Dominion of New England is formed by King James VII & II from the colonies of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, East Jersey, and West Jersey.

The French build Fort Saint Louis at the site of the current Iñez, Texas.

1688 – New Hampshire is again joined to Massachusetts Bay.

1689 – The Dominion of New England is dissolved into its constituent parts.

A force from the Nueva España province of Coahuila destroys Ft. St. Louis.

1690 – With the foundation of the Mission San Francisco de los Tejas (near the present Alto, Texas), Tejas is added to Nueva España as a virtually autonomous entity.

1691 – The northern part of Carolina is divided off as Albemarle.

New Hampshire once again regains its separate identity.

Massachusetts Bay Colony becomes a crown colony as the Province of Massachusetts Bay, absorbing New Plymouth, Nova Scotia/Acadia, New Brunswick, Nantuckett, Martha’s Vineyard, Maine, and the Elizabeth Islands.

1696 – Nova Scotia is returned to its status as a separate colony.

1697 – Scotland establishes the Colony of Caledonia in the Gulf of Darien region of Panama.  Its town is called New Edinburgh and its fort is named Fort St. Andrew, but it fails within a few years due to lack of support from Edinburgh and interference from the East India Company.

The Itza of Tayasal, the last independent people in Mesoamerica, falls to the Spanish under Ursua.

1698 - Col. Daniel Coxe is granted a patent for a colony called Carolana between the 31st and 36th parallels from the Carolinas to Nueva España.  He sends expeditions from England to Charlestown and the mouth of the Mississippi to cement his claims but is beaten by the French and the Spanish.

The Spanish establish the city of Pensacola with the building of the Presidio Santa Maria Galve, which contains Ft. San Carlos de Austria and a village.

1699 – The French establish La Louisiane in the Mississippi Valley, building Fort Maurepas at the present Ocean Springs (aka Old Biloxi).  Upper Louisiana (later known as Illinois Country), centered on Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, draws most of its settlers from Canada, while Lower Louisiana in Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and West Tennessee draws its settlers from all over the empire

1702 – East and West Jersey are reunited as New Jersey once again.

The French build Fort Louise de la Louisiane at Mobile.

The Spanish missions in the provinces of Guale and Mocama collapse under pressure from English privateers from the colonies of Virginia and Carolina and attacks by their Westo (Yuchi) allies, with the survivors fleeing to the safety of San Agustin.

1704 – The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River are established as an autonomous entity within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

1712 – Albemarle becomes North Carolina, with Carolina now called South Carolina.

France dissolves Nouvelle France into Canada, Acadie, Plaisance (Newfoundland), Hudson Bay, and La Louisiane.

1713 – Great Britain gains the former French territories of Nova Scotia (Acadie), Rupert’s Land (Hudson Bay), and Newfoundland (Plaisance) in the Treaty of Utrecht.

France responds by establishing the colony of Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island), which includes Ile Saint Jean (Prince Edward Island). 

1714 – The French establish Fort Charleville at the Great Salt Lick on the Wasioto (later Cumberland) River and Ft. Toulouse near the later site of Montgomery, Alabama.

1716 – The French build Ft. Rosalie at Natchez.

1717 – The Spanish create the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada comprising the territory of the later Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Panama.

The various scattered settlements in the Bahamas, mostly former or current buccaneer or pirate settlements, become a single British colony.

1718 – The French establish La Nouvelle-Orleans as the capital of La Louisiane.

1719 – The French build Ft. St. Pierre at Yazoo, Mississippi.

The colonists of South Carolina appeal to the king to make them a royal colony with a royal governor.

1723 – The French rebuild Ft. Louis at Mobile as Ft. Conde.

1728 – The boundary between Virginia and North Carolina is settled by surveyor William Byrd II.

1733 – Oglethorpe establishes Georgia, originally as a slave-free colony of former indentured servants and penal prisoners.

1736 – Scottish Highlanders settle Darien District in Georgia (the town was originally called New Inverness), at the request of James Oglethorpe to serve as a buffer between the English colony and the Spanish.

The French establish Ft. Tombecbe on the Tombigbee River in Alabama.

1748 – Nueva España begins creating the colony of Nuevo Santander.

1752 – The Dutch establish the colony of Demerara on the northeastern coast of South America, linking their other colonies of Essequibo and Berbice.

1754 – The Danish settlements in the Virgin Islands become a colony.

1755 – Le Grand Dérangement: Great Britain expels over 12,000 Acadians from Nova Scotia, most of whom settle in the Mississippi River delta where they become known as Cajuns.

1758 – Great Britain establishes the colony of St. John’s Island, formerly part of Acadie, after expelling its Acadian population.

1762 – France cedes La Nouvelle-Orleans and La Louisiane west of the Mississippi to Spain.

1763 – At the conclusion of the Seven Years’ War, France cedes Nouvelle France, La Grenade, and La Louisiane east of the Mississippi to Great Britain.

Spain cedes its territory east of the Mississippi, including La Florida and Nueva Orleans, to Great Britain.

The British divide Florida into East and West, with capitals at St. Augustine and Pensacola respectively. They rename Ft. Conde as Ft. Charlotte and Ft. Tombecbe as Ft. York.

Canada is renamed Quebec.

La Grenade is renamed Grenada.

Brasil officially becomes a viceroyalty of Portugal.

France attempts to colonize French Guiana with thousands of settlers, but within a year and a half only a few hundred remain, taking refuge on the islands of Royale, Saint Joseph, and Diable.

1764 – A colony called Charlotiana is proposed for the area later known by the United States of America as the Northwest Territory.

1765 – British settlers in the Yucatan peninsula organize under the name the Settlement of Belize and adopt their own code of law known as Burnaby’s Code.

1769 – Nueva España establishes the Presidio de San Diego and the mission San Diego de Acala.

St. John’s Island is separated from Nova Scotia.

Lands south and west of the Ohio River are proposed for a colony to be called Vandalia; the proposed colony was an outgrowth of an earlier scheme for a colony called Indiana.

1770 – Nueva España establishes the El Presidio Real de San Carlos de Monterey and the nearby Mission San Carlos Borromeo Carmelo.

1772 – Virginian French Hugeunots, North Carolina Regulators, and others from both colonies living in the North Holston, Watauga, Nolichucky, and Carter’s Valleys of what is now East Tennessee form the Watauga Association.

1773 – Nueva España establishes the Province of California.

1775 – The American Revolution begins, with the United Colonies declaring independence within a year.

1776 – The Three Lower Counties, long independent for all practical purposes, finally get an official identity as Delaware.

Nueva España builds the El Presidio Real de San Francisco.

The Spanish establish the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, including what is now Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia.

The Viceroyalty of Nueva España establishes the Comandancia y Capitanía General de las Provincias Internas, composed of the provinces of Nuevo Leon, Sinora y Sinaloa, Nueva Vizcaya, Las Californias, Nuevo Mexico, and Nuevo Santander, Nueva Extremadura.

1777 – After being disputed over for decades by Nouvelle France, New Netherlands, New York, Massachusetts Bay, and New Hampshire, the Republic of Vermont declares independence upon seceding from New York, originally naming itself New Connecticut.

The Watauga Association dissolves in order to become Washington County of North Carolina.

1780 – James Robertson of Washington County establishes the Cumberland Compact at the Great Salt Lick.

Nueva España renames Ft. Charlotte as Ft. Carlota.

1782 – Nueva España establishes El Presidio Real de Santa Barbara.

1783 – At the conclusion of the American Revolution, Great Britain recognizes the independence of the United States of America, and cedes the Floridas back to Spain.  All other territory south of Canada and east of the Mississippi River belongs to the new government, with the exception of the Republic of Vermont.

At this time, the United States of America includes New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

Nueva España builds Ft. Nogales at the mouth of the Yazoo River.

The Cumberland Compact becomes Davidson County of North Carolina, though for all intents and purposes remains virtually independent.

Gardiner's Island comes under the jurisdiction of East Hampton, though Lion Gardiner's descendants retain possession of the entire island to this day, held under the original patent.

1784 – Maine becomes part of the state of Massachusetts.

Russia establishes its first colony in Alaska.

The British divide the colony of Nova Scotia into Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Cape Breton Island.

The Settlement of Belize receives its first Superintendent.

1785 – Washington County secedes from North Carolina as the State of Franklin.

1787 – The Continental Congress establishes the (Old) Northwest Territory, which later becomes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Iowa (and part of Minnesota).

1790 – The State of Franklin collapses and those settlements, along with those in the Cumberland region, become part of North Carolina, which in turn cedes the area to the United States to become the (Old) Southwest Territory, later the State of Tennessee.

1791 – The Republic of Vermont joins the United States.

Canada is divided into English-speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada.

The slave revolt which culminates in the Haitian Revolution begins.

1792 – The long autonomous Kentucky County secedes from Virginia to become a State.

1794 – Nueva España establishes Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas at Chickasaw Bluffs, and rebuilds Fort York as Fort Confederacion.

Robespierre’s 193 surviving followers are sent to French Guiana. 

1795 – The Indians in Spanish-held La Florida and southern Georgia declare independence as the State of Muskogee.

1796 – The British capture the Dutch colonies of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice.

Nueva España abandons Ft. San Fernando de las Barrancas.

1797 – The island of Trinidad passes from Spain to the United Kingdom.

1798-1800 – The United States of America and the Republic of France fight the naval Franco-American War.

1798 – The United Kingdom renames St. John’s Island as Prince Edward Island.

1800 – Spain returns (western) La Louisiane to France.

1801 – The Haitian rebels capture Santo Domingo and control the whole island.

1802 – Georgia cedes its western territory to the United States, which later becomes the larger part of Mississippi and Alabama.

The United States of America takes control of Ft. Confederacion and renames it as Ft. Confederation.

1803 – The United States purchases La Louisiane from France, territory which later becomes (the remainder of) Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota, most of Montana, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana, along with half of Colorado, most of Wyoming, and the northeast corner of New Mexico state.

Spain disputes the right of France to cede the territory between the Calcasieu River (Arroyo Hondo) on the east to the Sabine
 River oon the west, which it claims as part of the Viceroyalty of Nueva España.

1804 – Nueva España’s province of California is divided into Nueva (later Alta) California (primarily territory of the later USA state of California) and Vieja (later Baja) California.

At the end of the slave revolution begun in the French colony of Saint-Domingue begun in 1791, the Republic of Haiti becomes independent.

1806 – An agreement between James Wilkinson, newly-appointed American governor of Louisiana Territory, and Simon de Herrera, Spanish military commander in East Tejas, sets aside the disputed territory between the Calcasieu and Sabine Rivers as neutral ground, creating what is later called the Sabine Free State.  The majority of its inhabitants are a mixed-race ethnic group called the Redbones.

1810 – The Republic of West Florida rebels against Nueva España and three months later becomes a territory of the United States.

1813 – The United States of America renames Ft. Carlota as Ft. Charlotte.

1814 – The British unite Essequibo and Demerara as one colony.

After it changes hands 35 times, Tobago comes under British rule.

After the break-up of its 500 year union with Norway, Denmark inherits Greenland (along with Iceland and the Faroes).

1815 – The Portugese gain control from Spain of the area called Banda Oriental, which it renames Cisplatina.

1816 – Jose de San Martin leads Argentina to independence from Spain.

1818 – With the help of San Martin, Bernardo O’Higgins leads Chile to independence along with Manuel Rodriguez and Thomas Cochrane.

The American army of Andrew Jackson captures the capital of the State of Muskogee, ending both the State and the First Seminole War.

1819 – In the Adams-Onis Treaty, the Spanish cede East Florida to the United States, their claims to West Florida, their claims to Oregon Country, and their claims to the neutral ground of the Sabine Free State.  In return, the United States surrenders its claims on Tejas/Texas west of the Sabine River.

Simon Bolivar leads the movement to turn the Viceroyalty of New Granada into the Republic of Gran Colombia.

1820 – Maine is separated from Massachusetts to become a state. Cape Breton Island is rejoined to Nova Scotia.

1821 – The Adams-Onis Treaty goes into effect, and the Sabine Free State becomes part of the U.S. State of Louisiana.

Nueva España gains its independence from Spain as the Empire of Mexico; its original territory includes all of Central America.

The western two-thirds of Hispaniola declares independence as Haiti Español, but instead of gaining admission into Gran Colombia is captured by the forces of Toussaint Louveture.

1822 – The Empire of Brasil declares independence from Portugal.

Uruguay declares independence from Spain.

1823 – The Federal Republic of Central America, comprising Guatemala (incl. a large part of Chiapas), El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Los Altos (west highlands of Guatemala and Chiapas) is established.

A revolt against the Empire of Mexico establishes the United Mexican States.

1824 – The state of Coahuila y Tejas is established as one of the United Mexican States.

Antonio Jose de Sucre leads the Republic of Peru to independence, with help from San Martin and Bolivar of Venezuela.

1825 – Bolivar and Sucre lead the Republic of Bolivia to independence from Spain.

1828 – The region called Cisplatina gains its independence.

1830 – The Federation of Gran Colombia dissolves into the United States of Colombia, the United States of Venezuela, and the State of Ecuador.

1831- The British unite Essequibo-Demerara with Berbice into British Guiana.

1836 – The Department of Tejas, now separate from that of Coahuila, announces its secession from the Republic of Mexico and is eventually successful at establishing its independence as the Republic of Texas, while voting at the same time to join the United States.

1840 – The Republic of the Rio Grande, composed of the Departments of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaluipas, secedes from the Republic of Mexico, but the effort collapses within the year. The Republic of Yucatan does likewise and is somewhat more successful.

Upper Canada and Lower Canada are reunited.

The Federal Republic of Central America dissolves into its constituent parts.

1841 – Russia establishes Fort Ross fifty miles north of San Francisco.

1843 – Yucatan reenters the Republic of Mexico.

1844 – The Dominican Republic becomes independent of Haiti.

1845 – The Republic of Texas enters the United States, bringing the territory of the present state, the southeast third of the current state of New Mexico, part of Colorado and Wyoming, and the panhandle of Oklahoma.

The Republic of Yucatan once again declares its independence from Mexico.

1846 – The United States acquires unchallenged title to Oregon Country, which later makes up Washington, Oregon, Idaho, the northwest corner of Montana, and part of Wyoming.

The Republic of California declares independence, which ends twenty-five days later with the arrival of the U.S. military.

1848 – At the end of the Mexican-American War, Mexico cedes territory to the United States that later becomes Arizona, Nevada, Utah, part of the current state of New Mexico, the remainders of Colorado and Wyoming, and ending claims to the already independent and U.S.-held California.

Nova Scotia becomes autonomous.

The colony of British Columbia is established.

Yucatan again reenters the Republic of Mexico.

1849 – The British establish the colony of Vancouver Island.

1853 – In the Gadsden Purchase, Mexico cedes its claims to the southern part of Arizona and the southwest corner of New Mexico.

1854 – Newfoundland becomes autonomous.

1861 - Eleven states in the Union, Indian Territory, and Arizona Territory secede and become the Confederate States of America in order to preserve slavery.

1862 – The French conquer Mexico and establish the Second Mexican Empire.

The Settlement of Belize becomes the Crown Colony of British Honduras.

1865 - With its loss at the end of the War Between the States, the states and territories of the Confederacy return to the Union.

1867 – Russia sells Alaska to the United States.

The United Kingdom establishes the autonomous Confederation of Canada.

The Republic is restored in Mexico.

1870 – The Hudson Bay Company cedes Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada.

1873 – Prince Edward Island, after considering joining the United States of America, joins the Confederation of Canada.

1886 – The United States of Colombia becomes the Republic of Colombia.

French settlers establish the short-lived Republique de Guyane Independente on the coast of Brasil, commonly called Courani after its capital. It folds three years later.

1889 – Trinidad and Tobago are united into a single colony.

1893 – A group of American businessmen bring about a coup d’etat against the reigning monarch in the Hawaii Islands and establishes the Republic of Hawai’i.

1898 – The United States of America annexes the Republic of Hawai’i.

At the end of the Spanish-American War, Spain cedes Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States of America, with the rest of Spain’s Pacific possessions going mostly to the German Empire.

1899 – The United States of America annexes Wake and American Samoa.

1900 – Tutuila Island and Aunuu Island become part of American Samoa.

1901 – Cuba becomes an independent nation.

1903 – The United State of America instigates a revolution that results in a Republic of Panama independent of Colombia in order to gain territory to build a canal between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.

1904 – Manua becomes part of American Samoa.

1907 – Newfoundland, still a colony of Great Britain, becomes independent.

1914 – The Panama Canal opens under total United States of America jurisdiction.

1917 – The United States of America buys the Virgin Islands from Denmark.

1919 – Germany’s Pacific possessions, previously held by Spain, fall to the Empire of Japan, including German Samoa, the Northern Marianas Islands, Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau.

1925 – Swains Island becomes part of American Samoa.

1935 – Jarvis Island becomes permanent territory of the United States of America.

The Philippine Islands become a theoretically autonomous republic in domestic affairs, though still a protectorate of the United States of America.

1946 – The Republic of the Philippines becomes completely independent of the United States of America, at least by law.

1947 – Marshall Islands, Northern Marianas Islands, Micronesia, and Palau become a U.N. Trusteeship of the United States of America.

1949 – Newfoundland joins the Confederation of Canada.

1962 – Trinidad and Tobago becomes an independent Commonwealth nation.

1966 – British Guiana becomes independent as the Republic of Guyana.

1973 – The Bahamas becomes fully independent.

British Honduras changes its name to Belize.

1975 – Suriname becomes fully independent.

1976 – Trinidad and Tobago leaves the Commonwealth to become a republic.

1978 – The Northern Marianas Islands becomes a protectorate of the United States of America with much the same status as Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

1979 – The Republic of the Marshall Islands becomes theoretically independent of the United States of America, but remains an “Associated State”.

The Panama Canal comes under joint control of Panama as well as the United States of America.

1981 – Belize becomes independent. 

1986 – The Federated States of Micronesia becomes theoretically independent of the United States of America but remains an “Associated State”.

1994 – The Republic of Palau becomes theoretically independent of the United States of America but remains an “Associated State”.

1999 – Panama assumes total control of the Canal.


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