13 January 2017

East Hamilton Co. communities and placenames

These are the historic communities, those completely past and those still extant, of Hamilton County south (and east) of the Tennessee River and east of South Chickamauga Creek, plus one community west of that but east of West Chickamauga Creek, with notable homesteads and prominent geographical features.

A sizable portion of this territory was part of James County, Tennessee, which existed 1871-1919, before merging back into Hamilton County.  Those communities and features with an asterisk at the end of their names were wholly or partly in James County, for the entirety its existence or for only a period of that.

Altamede was the mansion of the Shepherd and later Dupree families patterned after Diamond Hill of Cherokee leader James Vann.  Built in 1840, it was located in the center of Mary Dupre Circle until torn down in 1977.  The name also referred to the plantation upon which it stood.  Once spread over six thousand contiguous acres, by 1916 it still had over a thousand.

Apison* lies in the southwest corner of the intersection of East Brainerd Road and Apison Pike, or more accurately southwest of the crossing of the railroad by the former.  It was one of the four incorporated communities of James County, home to a rail station on the Ooltewah Cut-off of the East Tennessee, Virginia, & Georgia Railroad.  Before the Civil War, the community of Zion Hill spread out here.  The post office of Zion Hill operated in the vicinity 1848-1866.  The post office of Apison has operated in James County 1882-1919 and in Hamilton County since.

Bartlebaugh lies along Champion Road (formerly Old Harrison Pike) east of Solitude Drive to about Wooten Road, but the name also covers a broader area.  Formerly it centered about the intersection of Harrison Pike and old Champion Road.  Much of its original area was drowned by the Chickamauga Dam, and most of the rest is now part of Booker T. Washington State Park.

Bedbug Row was a section of tenant housing on Jenkins Road just south of its intersection with Shallowford Road in the early 20th century.

Bird’s Mill stood on the left bank of the Chickamauga River (South Chickamauga Creek) near the former Brainerd Mission, near the ford on the original route of the road variously known as the Missionary Road and Bird’s Mill Road.  The earlier Missionary Mills stood about a half mile upriver, its wheel powered by water down a millrace from Spring Creek.  After the Bird brothers, sons of Philemon Bird, sold the mill, it became known as the Brainerd Mills.  While in operation, farmers from as far away as Hill City would bring their grain here.

Birchwood* is the northernmost community of East Hamilton County, lying along Birchwood Pike where it is intersected by Johnson, Defriese, Daughtery Ferry, and Bunker Hill Roads.  It was one of the four incorporated towns of James County.  The post office of Birchwood (Birch Wood) operated in Hamilton County 1854-1873; in James County 1873-1914; and in Hamilton County again 1914-present.

Bird’s Mill stood on the left bank of South Chickamauga Creek near the former Brainerd Mission, near the ford on the original route of the road variously known as the Missionary Road and Bird’s Mill Road.  The earlier Missionary Mills stood about a half mile upriver, its wheel powered by water run from Spring Creek.  After the Bird brothers, sons of Philemon Bird, sold the mill, it became known as the Brainerd Mills.  While in operation, it was so good that farmers from as far away as Hill City would bring their grain here.

Black Ankle* lay south of Ooltewah and west of the railroad tracks in the early 20th century, when it was home to the Afro-American community of that town.  Its central feature was the still extant First Baptist Church of Ooltewah.

Black Belt* was an Afro-American community along the Tyner-Harrison Road razed under eminent domain to make way for the Army TNT plant in 1940.

Blackwell’s Ford* crosses the Chickamauga Creek roughly behind the driving range of Council Fire Golf Course.  From 1871 until 1919, it served as one of the boundary points for the new James County.

Bonny Oaks began 1854 as the home of Jeremiah Dent, son-in-law of Col. Lewis Shepherd, father of the later judge of the same name, later bought and named by Capt. J. S. Peak.  Peak left it in his will to the county for a residential industrial school, which was established when the property was combined with the adjacent Trimble farm purchased and donated by Carter Patten in 1898.  Bonny Oaks Industrial School operated until 1988.

Brainerd came into being in 1926 when the smaller communities of Olde Towne, Sunnyside, Dutchtown, Belvoir, and The Mission merged by popular vote under that name.  It was annexed in 1930.  The post office of Brainerd (Mission) operated in the Cherokee Nation East 1834-1838, having moved from Rossville (Tennessee).

Camp Jordan hosted B Troop of the 109th Cavalry of the Tennessee National Guard 1930-1946, serving as its pasture, stables, and training grounds.  It is now East Ridge’s premier park.

Canachee was the home and estate of Dr. Joseph Gillespie (mayor of Chattanooga 1844-1845) northwest of Chickamauga, later acquired by the Shepherds of Altamede.

Carpenter’s Ford was a crossing of South Chickamauga Creek at the later Audubon Acres, accessed by what are now North Sanctuary Road and the west side of Blue Bird Circle (formerly South Sanctuary, or Scruggs Bridge, Road).  Carpenter’s Mill also stood there from 1838 until sometime during the Civil War.

Cayuga was a 19th century community in Meigs County, south of the Hiwassee River across from Jolly’s Island, named for John Jolly’s town on the island before the Removal.  Due to its isolation from the rest of its county, it mostly interacted with Georgetown and Birchwood.

Chickamauga (Shepherd) as a post-Removal place-name belongs to the area across Airport Road (formerly Chickamauga Road) going east all the way to Carver Street past Highway 153; this was the first Chickamauga.  The community later became Shepherd after the name of the post office changed to stop confusion with Chickamauga, Georgia.  The original Chickamauga was a Cherokee town where Brainerd Heights-Brainerd Hills is now. 

The post office here operated as Chickamauga 1850-1863, as Chickamauga Station 1867-1882, as Chickamauga again 1882-1898, and as Shepherd 1898-1955.  When service moved to Chattanooga, the postmaster, Frank Moore, chose Chickamauga Station as the name for the satellite branch, which moved to Whorley/Brainerd Hills.  In the 1980s, it moved again to East Brainerd proper.

The modern community of Shepherd/Chickamauga lies west Airport Road across from Lovell Field, spreading east to be bisected by both Shepherd Road and Highway 153 to Carver Street below Grace Works Church atop Dupree Hill.  It also includes Highland Cemetery, Greenhill Cemetery, Citizens Cemetery (West Shepherd Road), and Shepherd Youth and Family Development Center, which had been Chickamauga Elementary School until 1987.

Chickamauga Campground (see Ryall Springs)

Chickamauga Gap splits the northern tip of Boynton Ridge in the south from Concord Ridge in the north, allowing for the passage of both the South Chickamauga Creek and the Western & Atlantic Railroad.

Chickamauga Hills* lie immediate west of Peavine Ridge in Georgia and continue north even after the ridge itself peters out.  At least that’s the name they are given on some Union military maps; in some official Uion reports they are called the Pigeon Hills.  The locals in Catoosa County, Georgia, just refer to them as “the ridges”.  In east Hamilton County, they help define Rabbit Valley.

Chickamauga River (see South Chickamauga Creek)

Chickamauga Valley, specifically the Lower Chickamauga Valley, lies east of Missionary Ridge and west of a series of hills and ridges that begins in Hamilton County in the south with Milliken Ridge along the western edge of Hickory Valley.

Collegedale (see Thatcher’s Switch)

Concord* was the original name for what is now East Brainerd, though to many that latter name takes in a much bigger area.  Concord took in Hickory Valley from Altamede south, Concord Ridge, most of Red Fox Valley along East Brainerd Road to about Givens Road.  The area along the stateline was where Concord and Graysville (Georgia) overlapped.  The name changed to East Brainerd following the organization of Brainerd in 1926, and the main road changed from Bird’s Mill Road to East Brainerd Road; the road was also called Chattanooga-Graysville Pike.

Concord Ridge runs from South Chickamauga Creek to a point overlooking Conner Lane.  In truth, it is the continuation of Boynton Ridge north of South Chickamauga Creek, and helps frame the southern half of Hickory Valley, extending to almost Shallowford Road.

Cross Roads* was the community that grew up around the intersection of Ooltewah-Georgetown Road and Mahan Gap Road.  Its main feature now is Country Place Restaurant, operated by the former owners of Ooltewah’s defunct Kreme House.  I highly recommend it.

Cumberland Campground (see Silverdale)

Dutchtown once stood in the area of the Lerch St. and Glendon Place neighborhoods and was the residential area around the dairy of Jacob Kellerhalls that later became part of the greater community of Brainerd.  Despite the name, it residents were German and Swiss.

Dividing Ridge* runs north of Ooltewah, framing Savannah Valley on the west as Whiteoak Mountain does on the east.

Dolly Pond sits near the headsprings of Grasshopper Creek at the mouth of the hollow.

East Brainerd (see Concord)

East Dale came together as Hornville in the 1890s, changing its name to East Dale in 1909 in hopes of soon being annexed.  The former Eastdale Baptist Church moved to Ooltewah-Ringgold Road and became Eastwood Baptist in the 1990s.  Its approximate boundaries were Wilcox Boulevard in the north and Rogers Road (including what's now Ridgeside Road) in the south.  The suburb was annexed in 1957.  The post office of Hornville operated here 1890-1891.  The post office of Shallowford operated here 1898-1901.

East Ridge is a town incorporated in 1921 from the earlier communities of Thurman Springs, Penny Row, Nickel Street, and Smoky Row.  From about 1900 to 1921 when the town was incorporated, the are was known as East Side.  The areas to the east of Spring Creek and Scruggs Bridge were added later.

Edgewater Beach was the recreational area at the Graysville Springs in Georgia just over the stateline on the banks of the pond created by the mill dam.  Before Chickamauga Lake was created, it was a prime water recreation area, with picnic areas and refreshment stands.

Ellis’ Crossing was the name for the area around the crossing of the Western & Atlantic Railroad by Bird’s Mill Road, and eventually replaced the name Vinegar Hill for the community.  It later became Whorley.

Friendship* centered on the Henry Road and McCreary (Gamble) Road crossroads between Salem to the north and Blue Springs to the south.  It was served by the post offices of Norman’s Store (1878-1894), Norman (1894-1909), and Work (1909-1914).

Friar Branch headsprings rise just south of I-75 across the freeway from Summit Cemetery.

Georgetown* lies at the intersection of Georgetown Road NW, Ooltewah-Georgetown Pike, Old Highway 58, and Blythe’s Ferry Road (now Highway 60; not to be confused with Blythe’s Ferry-Charleston Road).  It began as a Cherokee settlement centered around the substantial home of George Fields, built in 1812 and still standing.  After the Removal, it served as the site of Hiwassee Campground for religous meetings and the community was called Limestone.  The post office of Limestone operated 1837-1867.  The post office of Georgetown has operated in Hamilton County 1867-1872, in James County 1872-1877, in Meigs County 1877-1936, in Bradley County 1936-1941, and in Hamilton County again 1941-present.

Gibson Farm* spread over a couple of hundred acres just north of West View School.  It was the last working dairy in Rabbit Valley, which once was covered with them.  Pupils at the school sometimes could not go out for recess because cows were on the playground.  Eventually, it sold, but not to a subdivision; it is now the campus of East Hamilton secondary school.

Grasshopper Creek* rises from a spring in an unnamed hollow of Dividing Ridge in eastern Hamilton County, almost directly west of of the intersection of Dolly Pond Road  with Rabbit Lane.

Graysville, Georgia sits on the Western and Atlantic division of Norfolk Southern Railway at the foot of Bermuda Hill/Scrapeshin Ridge.  It is named for John D. Gray, who built the Western & Atlantic Railroad (among others) and made his home here.  The post office of Graysville has operated since 1856, when it changed from Opelika.

Green Shanty*, as a community, lay along the northern stretches of Green Shanty Road and Sue Drive which lie in Green Shanty Hollow.

Greenwood* centered on Greenwood Baptist Church at the intersection of Greenwood Road and Snow Hill Road.

Harrison* was the seat of Hamilton County 1840- 1870.  It joined the exodus into James County in 1871, but returned in 1883.  Old Harrison has lain almost entirely underneath Harrison Bay since the Chickamauga Dam closed; New Harrison relocated three miles south.  The old site sat at the intersection of Harrison Turnpike, Ooltewah-Harrison Road, and Drew Hunter Road.  The post office here operated as Vannsville 1839-1841, and as Harrison in Hamilton County 1841-1873, in James County 1873-1885, and in Hamilton County again since 1885.

Hawkinsville was the Afro-American community north of the crossroads of the Chattanooga-Cleveland Pike (Bonny Oaks Drive) and Hickory Valley Road taken when the U.S. Army built the ammunition and TNT plant on the site.  The community relocated southeast as a whole.

Hickory Valley runs from Harrison to Concord Golf Course and South Chickamauga Creek.  Until the coming of the railroads, the post road connecting with the Old Federal Road ran through here.  Its southern half is defined in the east by Concord Ridge and in the west by a series of elevations known as Vinegar, Trading Post, Stein, Dupree, and Milliken Hills.  The post office of Hickory Valley operated 1840-1842.

Vinegar Hill is where Brainerd Hills lies; Trading Post Hill is where Alhambra Shrine and Roselawn are; Stein Hill is where Marimont and the water tower are; Dupree Hill runs north of Highway 153; Milliken Hill runs north of Shallowford Road.  The whole length is sometimes referred to as Milliken Ridge.

Holmes was a whistle-stop on the Western & Atlantic Railroad that for a brief time gave its name to the small surrounding neighborhood in the vicinity of what is now Quintus Loop.

Honestville* lay along Ooltewah-Harrison Road just west of its intersection with Drew Hunter Road.  Honestville Church is still there, but Honestville School is long gone.

Hornville (see East Dale)

Howardville* grew around a station on the Ooltewah Cut-off of the East Tennessee, Virginia, & Georgia Railroad.  It survives at the intersection of Apison Pike and Howardville Road.

Huckleberry Pond* is at the upper end of Banks Road in Ryall Springs.

James County* existed from 1871 to 1919, when it reintegrated into Hamilton County.  Taking in most of the area covered here, its eastern boundary ran down the middle of the Tennessee River, taking in Dallas Island, before hitting land below the mouth of Harrison Spring Branch, going southeast to pass east of the former home of George House (the “House House”) at 7417 Cleveland Pike and from there in a straight line southwest to Blackwell’s Ford on the South Chickamauga Creek behind the driving range at Council Fire Golf Course, and from there to the Georgia stateline.

Jersey was a small community that grew up around the station on the Chattanooga Extension of the East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad, in the vicinity of the Jersey Pike crossing.  The post office of Jersey operated 1889-1904.

King’s Point lies at the end of Forest Road off Harrison Pike.  It was originally planned to be a town centered on the station of the Cincinnati, New Orleans, & Texas Pacific Railway, and you can still see the neatly arrayed blocks into which it was laid out.  The post office of King’s Point operated 1883-1898.

Langston (see Westview)

Limestone (see Georgetown)

Lightfoot Mill stood on stilts in South Chickamauga Creek adjacent to its left (west, in this case) bank, near the McCarthy Station on the Western & Atlantic and East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroads.

Lizard Lope (see Morris Hill)

Lomenick’s Ferry served those traveling the old stage and post road (Hickory Valley Road from Harrison, crossing Hickory Valley at Altamede to follow North and South Concord Roads south of Igou Gap Road) from Harrison through Hickory Valley to the Old Federal Road needing to cross over South Chickamauga Creek.  The site was also used for baptisms by nearby Concord Baptist Church, for which it became known as the “Old Baptizing Place”.

Long Savannah* lay in Savannah Valley six miles south of Georgetown, centered on Savannah School and Savannah Methodist Church at the north end of Snow Hill Road near its intersection with Highway 58.  Before the Removal, there was a Cherokee community here, and one of the precincts of the Chickamauga District voted here.  The post office of Long Savannah operated in Hamilton County 1836-1866 and in James County 1872-1904.

Long Savannah Creek* rises from a large spring at the foot of Whiteoak Mountain three-tenths of a mile northeast of Meadowview Baptist Church.

Lovell Air Field was established in 1928 on pasture land owned by Dr. J. B. Haskins as Brainerd Aviation Field, across the tracks from Chickamauga railroad depot and village.

Loyalty (see Snow Hill)

Mackey Branch* runs from its headsprings in Standifer Gap through Red Fox Valley to its confluence with South Chickamauga Creek at Chickamauga Gap.  Sam Watkins of “Co. Aytch” called it Cat Creek.  According to Robert Sparks Walker, the Cherokee name was Tsula Creek.

Maddux* straddled Birchwood Pike (the section now called Harrison Bay Road) south of Shirley Pond Road opposite Dallas Island in the Tennessee River.  Most of Maddux is now either below the waters of Chickamauga Lake or part of Harrison Bay State Park.

McCarty Station is the name of a community at the northern end of Tunnel Boulevard that got its name from a small depot serving both the Western & Atlantic Railroad and the East Tennessee, Virginia, & Georgia Railroad.

Magby Pond* was an Afro-American community that once stood in the northern reaches of what became the Army TNT plant in 1940, named for the large pond there.

The Mission was the loosely-defined area in the vicinity of the former Brainerd Mission across the creek from Old Chickamauga Town.  It became part of Brainerd.

Morris Hill* was the name for a loosely-defined area originally known as Lizard Lope, whose named changed after the subscription school was built there, at the intersection of what are now Morris Hill and Igou Gap Roads.  The name covered the area spread out west of Julian Ridge and south to East Brainerd Road.  Like the latter’s parent, Morris Hill School existed for over a decade before Morris Hill Baptist Church.  Later, it moved just east of Ryall Springs and was renamed Westpoint School, then moved another mile east across from West View Cumberland Presbyterian (now Cornestone Community) Church and renamed again.

New Hawkinsville is where the Afro-American community of Hawkinsville relocated after the TNT plant was created.  It lies along Pinewood Drive between Gunbarrel Road and Jenkins Road, and takes in most of Will Kelley Road.

New Union* grew up in northern Savannah Valley in the late 19th century around the New Union Baptist Church, then near the intersection of Meadowview Road and Grasshopper Road.

Nickel Row (aka Nickel Street) was a neighborhood arising in the 1890s that became part of McBrien Road and later East Ridge.

Norman (see Friendship)

Norman’s Store (see Friendship)

Oak Hill lay along North Hickory Valley Road inside that grounds of the later Army TNT plant around its intersection with a road called Montgomery Lane.

Olde Towne was the business section and its immediate neighborhood of what became Brainerd by popular vote in 1926, west of Tunnel Boulevard along Bird’s Mill, then Brainerd, Road.

Ooltewah* proper sits in the angle formed by the original East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad and the Ooltewah Cut-off of that railroad’s successor, East Tennessee, Virginia, & Georgia Railroad.  It get its name from the former Cherokee settlement of the same name.  During James County’s existence, it served as the seat of the county court, and the third James County Courthouse still stands.  After the Removal, it was the site of Union Campground for religious camp meetings until it became one of the original stations on the Chattanooga Extension of the ET&G.  Ooltewah Station was at the town’s northeast corner; Ooltewah Junction Station in the northwest corner.  The post office of Ooltewah operated 1837-1843, when it became Julian Gap, operating in Hamilton County until 1857 when it moved to Bradley County, returning to Hamilton County as Ooltewah in 1859, moving to James County in 1871 and back to Hamilton County in 1919.

Ooltewah Creek* is now better known as Wolftever Creek, which is a mangling of its older and more proper name.  Its headspring rises in the far southeastern corner of Hamilton County, at the foot of Pine Hill Ridge.

Opelika was the name of the Cherokee village that stretched from Graysville, Georgia, into the later Concord (East Brainerd) community.  Originally, it was the name for the Late Mississippian town that stood on the site of “Little Owl’s Village” at Audubon Acres, which was burned by the Coosa Indians during the Pardo Expedition.  It was the name for what’s now Graysville until John D. Gray had it changed.  The post office of Opelika operated 1850-1856.

Pattentown* was along Pattentown Road between Sue Drive and Bill Reed Road.

Penny Row was a section at the turn of the century of what later became East Ridge that derived its name from a store that specialized in penny items.

Pineville* was a community along the road of the same name in Rabbit Valley.

Prospect* lay along Prospect Church Road west of Apison on the opposite side of Bauxite Ridge, its main features being New Prospect (now Apison) Baptist Church and Prospect School.

Providence* lay along Providence Road east of the Ooltewah-Georgtown crossroads and Johnson’s (Green) Gap through Whiteoak Mountain.  Providence Baptist Church

Rabbit Valley* lies between Whiteoak Mountain on the east and the Chickamauga Hills to the west, from Ooltewah south to Ringgold.  Past Ringgold, it becomes Woodstation Valley.

Red Fox Valley* is drained by Mackey Branch, called Tsula Creek by the Cherokee living there before the Removal and Cat Creek by Sam Watkins of “Co. Aytch”, tsula being Cherokee for “red fox”.  Essentially, it is the continuation of the same basin as Peavine Valley in Georgia.

Ridgeside is that part of Sunnyside which self-incorporated rather than be annexed into Chattanooga along with the rest of Brainerd.  It includes the subdivisions of Shepherd Hills and Crescent Park.  It is still independent.

Ryall Springs* was a summer resort in the gap between Fuller Ridge to the south and Julian Ridge to the north centered on the large set of springs by the same name.  Before that, it had been Chickamauga Campground, the religious camp meeting place for the Methodists of Graysville the Cumberland Presbyterians of Westview, and, possibly, the Baptists of Concord before their churches were organized.  The “Ryall Springs, Unincorporated” sign and nearby pump station survived until the city limits came to Morris Hill Road in the late 1970s.

Ryall Springs Branch* rises at the Ryall Springs south of Julian Ridge and north of East Brainerd Road.  There are several springs here within fifty feet.  The great spring was as large and deep as Blue Hole Spring at Red Clay State Park until the 1973 flood.

Salem* centered on the stretch of Birchwood Pike between its intersection with Grasshopper Road and that with Eldridge Road.  While the name lived in a church and school, its post office was Thatcher’s Landing (1872-1895) then Thatcher’s (1895-1901).

Savannah Valley* runs north of Ooltewah between Dividing Ridge on the west and Whiteoak Mountain on the east.

Scruggs’ Bridge lay between West Chickamauga and South Chickamauga Creeks, and later became part of East Ridge.  But before that, its residents conversed more with those in Concord (East Brainerd) than those to the west.  The post office of Scruggs operated 1899-1905.

Shady Rest* was a small summer resort west of Ryall Springs and east of Concord/East Brainerd proper that gave its name to the immediate surroundings.

Shallow Ford is the ancient ford of the South Chickamauga Creek along the modern road of the same name.  The actual ford itself lies immediately north of the current bridge.  The ford was considered imporant enough that three different roads were named for it, and when a bridge was first put in, the road detoured about a quarter-mile north (the road bed for the detour, at least on the west side, can still be seen).  The surrounding community on both sides of the South Chickamauga was known by this name.  The post office of Shallowford operated 1898-1901.

Shepherd (see Chickamauga)

Shot Hollow was an Afro-American community in the late 19th and early 20th centuries lay at the center of Shot Hollow Road, which is now named Oakwood Drive.  It centered in the area now called Washington Heights, which gets its name from Booker T. Washington School, but it sprawled along the full length of the road to Hickory Valley Road.  Two-thirds of it fell to eminent domain for the U.S. Army’s TNT plant.

Silverdale is named for the Silverdale Springs which provided water for Cumberland Campground, a religious camp meeting site about which Good Springs (later Tyner) Baptist, House’s Chapel (now Tyner) Methodist, and Chickamauga (later Pleasant Grove, now Silverdale) Cumberland Presbyterian churches were founded.  The neighborhood centered around the “House House” (home of pioneer George House), which still stands.  In the late 19th century there was an attempt to change the name of the community to North Brainerd, but it never caught on.  The post office of Silverdale operated 1899-1907.

Sivley Ford was the crossing place of the Harrison Turnpike over South Chickamauga Creek at Old Boyce.

Smoky Row was the name in the 1880s forward of the section between Missionary Ridge and Green’s Spring Lake Road that became part of East Ridge.

Snow Hill* proper centered on Mahan Gap Road between its two intersections with Snow Hill Road.  Snow Hill School originally stood on the northern branch of the eponymous road.  The name eventually spread to Greenwood, Providence, and Cross Roads, and most nowadays consider it part of Greater Ooltewah.  The post office of Snow Hill operated 1850-1866; after the Civil War, it operated as Loyalty 1866-1872.

South Chickamauga Creek, also known (mostly in the 19th century) as Chickmauga River, begins at the confluence of East Chickamauga Creek and Tiger Creek two miles east of Ringgold, Georgia, and two-tenths of a mile west of Old Stone Church.

Spring Creek rises as Black Branch on Chickamauga Battlefield and becomes Spring Creek after going around a bend.  Its confluence with West Chickamauga Creek is just east of I-75 just south of the I-75/I-24 interchange.

Standifer Gap* is the gap through the hills along which the road by the same name runs, as well as the rural neighborhood once there.

Sulfur Springs (see Wells)

Summit* proper lies mostly between Chattanooga-Cleveland Pike and Old Lee Highway east of School Street, but spreads out to include the Old Lee Highway-Apison Pike crossroads, west down Old Lee Highway, and the north end of Pattentown Road.  It began life as a woodstation on the Chattanooga Extension of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad.

Sunnyside was the residential area east of Tunnel Boulevard that grew up around the home of Judge R.B. Cooke and later became part of the greater community of Brainerd.

Thatcher’s (see Salem)

Thatcher’s Landing (see Salem)

Thatcher’s Switch* was the company town serving Jim Thatcher’s lime kilns.  Jim was born in Salem community at Thatcher’s Landing.  It included the Thatcher mansion, housing for workers and foremen, a commissary, and a dining hall.  When the Seventh Day Adventists chose this site for relocation of their college at Graysville, Tennessee, they took over all the buildings and renamed the area Collegedale.  Now the home to Southern Adventist University.  The post office of Collegedale has operated since 1919.

Thurman Springs, also spelled Therman, was a Civil War era community on the east side of Missionary Ridge just below the springs of the same name on the side of the ridge that later became part of East Ridge.  It was also the end of the line on the Mission Ridge Incline Railway.

Toqua spread north from the right bank of South Chickamauga Creek and east from the left bank of the Tennessee River.  It was named for the Cherokee town there before the Removal.  The area was already called Toqua when John D. King, brother-in-law of Amnicola owner Thomas Crutchfield, built a house here and named it thus.  The name faded with the establishment of the King’s Point community.  A post office of Toqua operated here 1843-1844.  It revived as Sivley 1878-1880, then the name reverted to Toqua again until 1884, when it closed.

Tyner proper lies south of the Norfolk Southern Railway tracks along Hickory Valley Road and its side roads.  Originally, the village lay north of the tracks to include the road side north of Chattanooga-Cleveland Pike (now Bonny Oaks Drive).  The whole village fell to eminent domain for the U.S. Army’s TNT plant.  It then relocated to its current location.  The post office of Tyner (briefly Tynersville) operated 1860-1972.

Turkeyfoot was a rural organized Afro-American community along the Tennessee River with its own school, churches, local government.  That which wasn’t drowned beneath the waters of Chickamauga Lake became Booker T. Washington State Park.

Vannsville (see Harrison)

Vinegar Hill is the hill upon which Brainerd Hills and Brainerd Heights are built.  It was named by John and Arthur Steele who had their strawberry plantation here.  It was also the name of the surrounding area before being replaced by Ellis’ Crossing.

Walnut Grove* was the name sometimes used for the Concord community east of Concord Ridge beginning in the late 19th century, derived from the school on South Gunbarrel Road which later moved to Bird’s Mill Road across from the William T. Walker homestead.  Both the road and the school are now East Brainerd.  The use of the different name may have also arisen from the fact that most of the area east of Concord Ridge was in James County 1871-1919.

Wells* lies at the eastern mouth of Julian (Dead Man’s) Gap through Whiteoak Mountain and the southern mouth of Whiteoak Valley, originating as a stop on the East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad.  Before the Civil War, it was called Sulfur Springs.

West View* was centered upon the Ooltewah-Ringgold and East Brainerd crossroads, but extended west toward Ryall Springs, east into Parker’s Gap, south to the stateline, and north to at least Standifer Gap Road.  The area got its name from the huge farm owned by Samuel T. Igou at the western mouth of Igou Gap at the foot of Whiteoak Mountain.  Westview School carries on the name, and West View Cumberland Presbyterian did until the 1990s, when it became Cornerstone Community Cumberland Presbyterian.  Parker’s Gap Baptist was founded as West View Baptist.  The post office of Westview operated 1851-1857; the post office of  Langston operated here 1894-1904.

White Oak was the name of a school at or near the intersection of Pineville Road with Rabbit Valley (Ooltewah-Ringgold) Road.

Whiteoak Mountain* rises just south of Georgetown.  After passing Taylor’s Gap at Ringgold, Georgia, it becomes Taylor’s Ridge, at least in name, extending south down into Chattooga County, Georgia.  In its course, it is split by a number of gaps, all of which originally were traversed by ancient pathways. 

From north to south, these are Taliaferro Gap, approachable only by Cobblestone Creek Road from the east; Lewis’ Gap, with Smith Road on the west and Blackburn Hollow Road on the east, which do not now meet; Mahan Gap, crossed by Mahan Gap Road; Johnson’s (Green) Gap, crossed by I-75 Highway; Julian (Dead Man’s) Gap, crossed by Robert E. Lee Highway; McDaniel’s (Collegedale) Gap, crossed by Apison Pike; Igou Gap, crossed by Standifer Gap Road; Parker’s Gap, crossed by East Brainerd Road; and Taylor’s (Ringgold) Gap, five miles away at Ringgold, crossed by US Highway 41.

Whorley was named for William T. Worley, station and postmaster at Chickamauga who moved to this location at Ellis’ Crossing.  With the rail station and post office established, the name supplanted Ellis’ Crossing as a placename until Brainerd Hills and Brainerd Heights were built.  The only remaining vestige of its existence is the former Whorley Masonic Lodge now housing Rick’s Lock and Key.  The post office of Whorley operated 1897-1908.

Wolftever Creek* (see Ooltewah Creek)

Wooten* was a whistle-stop for a side track about halfway between Thatcher’s Switch and Apison that left no trace of its existence other than the name on some railroad maps.

Work (see Friendship)

Wrinkletown was along Chickamauga (now Airport) Road north of Lee Highway, but south of Chickamauga/Shepherd, up to include Rosedale Drive and Whispering Pines.

Youngstown lay along the same-named road between Chattanooga-Cleveland Pike (now Bonny Oaks Drive) and Lightfoot Mill Road.

Zion Hill (see Apison)

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