Once the lands of the Kapampangan people spread across Pampanga, southern Tarlac, half of Zambales, Bataan, most of Nueva Ecija, part of Bulcan, and northern Rizal down to the north bank of the Pasig River.
The kingdom of Tondok, ruled by Lakan Dula at the time of the Spanish Conquest, was Kapampangan; it was called Luzon by the Chinese. Its seat was at the location of the current district of Tondo in Manila. North to south, the authority of its lakans or rajahs at that time extended from southern Central Luzon to the southern tip of Bicol; its later northern territories were then rule by the Chinese-influenced Huangdom of Pangasinan.
Its Sultanate of Brunei-sponsored rival, the Tagalog kingdom of Seludong or May-nila, sat across the river, with its seat at the later, and current, Intramuros.
The kingdom of Namayan immediately south of Seludong between Manila and Laguna Bays formed from a confederation of Tagalog barangays.
Nu – The transcendant and immanent force which permeates all things. Yes, the ancient Kapampangans believed in something corresponding to The Force. They were not the only ones; the Chinese, to cite just one example, have the Dao.
Mangacha – the Great Elder who created the heavens, was a transcendent deity with no gender
Apung/Aring Sinukwan/Suku – the god of the sun, war, and death represented by Mt. Arayat; also called Bondok Alaya; Apo Apang); he taught humans metallurgy, wood-cutting, and war.
Apung Malyari – the goddess of the moon represented by Mt. Pinatubo; also called Apo Namalyari
Apung Iru – the god of the eight rivers in the form of the giant crocodile of the Pasig River, the entire length of which once belonged to the Kapampangans
Munag Sumala – the goddess of the dawn in the form of the golden serpent
Tala – the god of the morning star; son of Munag Sumala, and bringer of wet rice culture
Lakandanup – the god of gluttony represented by the noontime sun; son of Sinukwan and twin of Gatpunapun
Gatpunapun – the god of pleasure represented by the afternoon sun; son of Sinukwan and twin of Lakandanup
Sisilim – the goddess of dusk; daughter of Apung Malyari
Galura – the winged assistant of Sinukwan and the bringer of storms
Bacobaco – fire-breathing god of the sea
Naga – protective spirits in the form of serpents
To the Aeta, who descend from the original inhabitants of the Kampampangan region, Mt. Arayat was and is still Apu Apang and Mt.Pinatubo was and is still Apu Na.